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Outdoor advertising measurement

There are numerous methods for measuring outdoor advertising effectiveness. Metrics often include both media indicators and additional business indicators.

Business indicators allow assessing the direct impact of outdoor advertising. In order to assess advertising campaign impact on the business, it is necessary to set the planned figures (depending on the campaign goals) and analyze the results before and after the campaign.

Campaign goals:

  1. Drive sales/initial purchase
  2. Increase brand awareness
  3. Create brand identity


Industry standards define quantitative metrics of an advertising campaign:

  1. Opportunity to see (OTS)
  2. Rating point (RP)
  3. Gross rating point (GRP)
  4. City coverage (Reach)
  5. Frequency


How to use these metrics:

  1. What is the effective frequency?
  2. What should be the volume of the advertising campaign?
  3. How many panels grant an optimal level of visual presence?

Business indicators of advertising campaign performance

These allow assessing the impact of an advertising campaign on the business results.


Campaign goalBusiness indicators
Drive sales/initial purchase
  1. Measure local sales before and after the campaign
  2. Measure sales in a broader area before and after the campaign
  3. Place a special URL (or another marker) that will help you identify the newly created traffic
Brand awareness
  1. Top of mind survey
  2. Brand loyalty survey
  3. Brand awareness survey
  4. Creative identification survey
Brand identity
  1. Measure brand identity key features
  2. Measure brand identity features after the campaign
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OTSOpportunity to see


Opportunity to see

OTS = traffic × reduction

OTS is a measure which denotes the number of times the viewer is most likely to see the advertisement. E. g., if the daily OTS of the campaign is 2,100, this means that on average 2,100,000 impressions on the selected number of panels will be delivered daily.

Reduction factors:

  • Contact time
  • Panel height
  • Clutter
  • Viewing angle
  • Line of sight obstructions
  • Distance to traffic lights
  • Offset from the main traffic line
  • Competing panels

RPRating point


Rating point

RP = OTS / population 18+ × 100%

Daily rating of one panel.

This metric determines the proportion of the city’s population that had the opportunity to see advertising during the day.

GRPGross rating point


Gross rating point

GRP = RP1 + RP2 + RP3 + ... + RPn

GRP is the total rating of all panels carrying the advertising campaign. The higher the GRP, the higher the coverage.

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ReachCity coverage


City coverage

Reach = GRP / Frequency

Reach is the number of representatives of the target audience who actually saw the advertising.

The number of people who saw the advertising is calculated only once, regardless of the number of panels with the same creative that were viewed by them. The coverage may be increased by attracting new viewers.

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FrequencyAdvertising frequency


Advertising frequency

Frequency = GRP / Reach

Frequency: how often the target audience could see the advertising for a certain period of time.

Average frequency is calculated by analyzing the patterns of daily movements of the target audience in the city.

Effective frequency

According to Seeing is Believing white paper by TAB (USA, 2007), the probability of seeing a specific panel is increasing with every next trip past it:

  • 1st trip — up to 60%
  • 2nd trip — up to 84%
  • 3rd trip — up to 94%
  • 4th trip — up to 99%

This knowledge allows you to properly plan the volume and period of the advertising campaign, depending on the business goals.










Advertising campaign scale

The optimal volume of advertising campaign is determined by its goals.



Minimal visual presence



Optimal visual presence



Launch campaign



Saturated campaign

Number of panels constituting 80 GRP

Average RP


Number of panels constituting 80 GRP differs depending on:

  • city
  • number of advertising frames in the city
  • population
  • other factors


In order to maximize advertising campaign effectiveness and secure high reach, it is necessary to select panels evenly throughout the city.